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The Pyramids of Egypt
The Secrets Revealed


The Secret Surveyors and Their Methods Revealed for the first time

Hi all this chapter is going to tie up and tie in an awful lot of loose ends. It will also answer some intriquing questions. One answer that it seems to answer in a very unique and novel way is where the cubit may have originated. It aslo indirectly ( or maybe directly) answers the question of why are the pyramids the size that they are. It also I think (for the time being anyway) lays to rest the notion that The Ancient Builders knew and used Pi and decimals, and finally I think it also ends speculation that The Ancient Builders knew and used a 360 degree circle. All those "crazy" ideas I had appear to have been shattered with a clearer understanding of how things may have worked in Ancient Egypt. But before we get to the meat of my theories I have to preface it by saying this: "In my estimation there is no proof that The Ancient Egyptians of 2500 BC actually built the orignal pyramids at Giza. They may have stood there for untold millenia and were simply reused in the manner I suggest here. The argument can go both ways. Notwithstanding this, it is my contention that what follows in my theory is what the pyramids were used for and possibly designed for and the methods I am about to propose were forgotten and discarded when that "Thief of Greece" Pythagaros, stole the idea and made it into something else. And a final note here. I am 65 years old and I remember quite vividly that up untill Grade 11 the accepted aprroximation for Pi was 22/7 or as they called it in my school, "Greek Pi" or 3 and 1/7 th as in those days we used fractions a lot. This chapter I hope will be a learning experience for you as it has been for me. Is it the correct solution ? Well I have been asking for a solution to this problem for 16 years. Here is the simple question that has once again opened a Pandora's Box of knowledge. "How did The Ancient Egyptians lay out the fields again after the inundation had washed away all of the property corners" In 16 years I was never given an answer. Even George Johnson, an Egyptologist over at Guardian Egypt was unable to answer the question, so as I am apt to do, I decided to try to figure it out myself and the solution I have found is ingenius and even if this is not what they used the concept is so simple you will be hard pressed to not believe they used it in this manner. So please hold your questions untill the end of the lecture and I will be more than happy to fill in any gaps.

When most people think about this they see surveyors with transits and levels and 100 cubit long ropes measuring ... but you know what - did they, or you, ever stop to think from where were they measuring and more to the point ... to what were they measuring. Also I was dumbfounded by the notion that such a rich and cultured and advanced civilization could not even tell or read angles. It simply did not make sense and so I went in search of a way to read angles ... but not have angles. Sound like double speak ? Well I don't blame you for in reality it is. But from pondering that question the floodgates of ancient measures and design came flooding into the harbor of enlightenment. The seas of darkness had been breached and I feel I had been flooded with the knowledge that had been held back. It is so ingenious it will make you smile. I had managed to find a way to read angles, measure distances and lay out literally all of Ancient Egypt WITHOUT A TRANSIT OR A LEVEL OR A TAPE MEASURE. It is wild and soon I will slowly post the solution for as some say about a fine wine and I say about  a nice new break through in knowledge it has to be savored and enjoyed for it can never ever be enjoyed in the same way again.

Here is how it unfolded. For several months I had been working on an idea of how could I, in the middle of the Egyptian deserts, be able to know where I was. And as in all the old problems of The Ancient Greeks there were limitations on what I could have with me. Only utensils that were available in 2500 BC would be able to be used. And so I started the thought experiments.  I have a little model pyramid given to me by my daughters and as I turned it this way and that an idea slowly started to form. And then out of nowhere I saw it. I guess it is partly due to our indoctrination and the way we are taught to think but I suddenly saw a pattern emerging.  We all know that the majority of the pyramids are aligned to the cardinal points, that is north, east, west and south and we really for the longest time, and most still today, have no real idea of why they went through this much trouble to try to get it perfect but after reading my solution you will see it clearly. In a way it ties into my being able to tell what day it was by simply looking at the phase of The Moon. It was extremely easy to teach myself and as long as I worked it it remained but as soon as I stopped looking at The Moon and trying to figure it out it now escapes me. And so it was that I started examining pictures of the pyramids, mainly The Red Pyramid trying to figure out a way I could tell what angle I was at. And as sometimes happens in these instance I had an insight. I finally saw what I had been unable to see before and as I explain it to you you will see it clearly also.  The Pyramids had been aligned to the cardinal points to allow travelers to get their bearings out in the wild open spaces of the deserts where getting lost usually meant losing your life and here is how they accomplished this simple feat. 

Firstly we need an image of The Red Pyramid as viewed directly on it's face or from a cardinal direction. Here is one I found. This is the south face.

And I guess since I was doing research on The Giza Pyramids as viewed on edge I decided to take another look to see if I could find an image that viewed this pyramid on edge.  Here is one I found.

Here is a small simplistic diagram I did early in my research to show this concept a little clearer. The image to the right is of course 420.0 cubits


It is pretty obvious to anyone that in order to move from viewing any of the faces dead on around to the edge we of course have had to travel 45 degrees left or right. Not at all rocket science and extremely simplistic except for one itsy bitsy teeny tiny problem. We can't use angles. Oh no what are we going to do. How are we going to get across the idea of what you and I mean as 45 degrees to someone who has absolutely no concept of any degrees or circles let alone 45 degrees.  Well I have to admit I struggled with this idea and concept and I really have not solved it completely because I was swept away on a tidal wave of revelation in regards to the measure of distances but the seeds are planted and I pretty well know how I am going to solve it but let's move on just a bit. 

Let us now look at another example where we have no clue what the angle is from true south.

How are we ever going to figure it out ? Well amazingly it is quite simple. This time let us view the pyramid as it would be seen from above.

On the surface it looks impossible to solve but it is very simple as I will demonstrate below.   The only known we have is the diagonal and that is 420.0 cubits as show in the diagram below but with a little ingenuity we can form an object that can make our quest a little easier. Observe.

Now we have turned it into a right angled triangle but the beauty of this comes from the fact that since we obviously can not measure the depth of field of field shown by the furthest left 187.83 we can simply "measure" to right from the edge to what we perceive as the right hand corner to get the results as shown. Since the diagonal or hypotenuse is always going to be 420 for this pyramid we simply have to divide the right and the left measures, in this case 187.83 / 375.66  and come up with a ratio. So now here is the punch line ... THE RATIO BECOMES THE ANGLE !!!!!!!! Or as it is better know TAN OR SEKED !!!!!! but oh oh wait here is the definition of Seked:  "The seked of a right pyramid is the inclination of any one of the four triangular faces to the horizontal plane of its base, and is measured as so many horizontal units per one vertical unit rise. It is thus a measure equivalent to our modern cotangent of the angle of slope. In general, the seked of a pyramid is a kind of fraction, given as so many palms horizontally for each cubit of vertically, where 7 palm equal one cubit. The Egyptian word 'seked' is thus related to our modern word 'gradient'." But as I have just showed you the only constant here is the hypotenuse so this does not seem to fit the exact meaning of seked but not to worry we will come back to this problem for we still need to come up with the method ( I have it by the way) of measuring the two distances in question. So what have we accomplished here. Well we have stepped outside the box and instead of simply applying seked to up and down we (I) have used it to measure angles on the ground east and west. I have turned myself into a transit and have manged to figure out, using basically a form of trig to find the angle of approach to any pyramid in Egypt. Here is what I mean. The values by the way I preset for demonstration purposes at 26.5656 but since we do not know angles we will simply call it 0.5 seked since they are in the ratio 1 to 2 as shown by the image below. Because as you can see the ratio will always be from 0 to 1 since what we used to call 45 degrees has "a" and "b" equal to 1 and thus we will now call simply seked 1

Here is the iamge.

So now whenever you look at a pyramid you should be able to figure out what angle it is being viewed from. And that concludes today's lesson. However do we really want to call what we used to call angles simply 0.5 and 0.66 and 0.75 and 1 or can we find another more interesting way to label them. That is what I will have to find out for you for I have not got that far yet for next up is how I solved the problem of the measuring or "The Stretching of The Chord"


Hi all ... in this posting (if I have time) we are going to get to the meat of my theory on how The Ancient Surveyors were able to do what they did, that is re-measure the fields of Egypt. Even the name of the ceremony --- "The Stretching of The Chord" evokes images of ancient Egyptians scurrying around and measuring with their 100 cubit rope "chains" however few have stopped to ask ... what were they measuring from and to where were they measuring. This method of surveying would have been adequate for local small distance surveying but how was Egypt itself measured. How the devil did those ancient surveyors manage to quickly and efficiently and accurately lay out the fields each and every year. It was the life blood of the nation and so it was imperative that each year all the fields were put back in place in as close a position to what it was before as possible. So the question has been , at least to me and the child who asked how they got the Cadbury milk chocolate in the Cadbury milk bar, how did they do it ? How did they re-lay out the fields each year ? Well I think I know and along the way I have found some very interesting things. I have discovered why in Ancient Egypt everything was a fraction.  I have also learned that The Ancient Egyptians definitely DID NOT know the decimal system and that the reason for the pyramids is not that they were tombs but something else entirely. Were the pyramids maybe taken over some time later after their construction for tombs ? Possibly but I doubt even that. The pyramids had a very specific purpose.

How many of us have wondered  why 440 and 280 for The Great Pyramid ? Why 200 and 420 for The Red Pyramid ? Why 200 (maybe 198) and 360 (maybe 362) for The Bent Pyramid ? And why oh why is their such a strange number of inches in the Royal Cubit. Well my solution answers all these questions and more. Along with answering these questions it will also show you an extremely easy trick of measuring the deserts of Egypt. It will also allow you to figure out your distance from some of the great landmarks of our planet. Creighton has his cross and now I have ... well let's just call it "The Barone Contraption" ... with this simple device which I will show you when I get home from work, you will become a surveyor extraordinaire and join the ranks of the learned of the ancient world.

I have thought of nothing all day but continuing on with these postings. A question, why 440 cubits for the base ... why 280 cubits for the height. I mean really why not 260 and 415 ? Why oh why did they choose these measurements and distances and the answers are so profound that I really feel like I am back in Ancient Egypt because I suddenly understand so much so well now. I have been told a zillion times to get rid of my decimals and to really understand Egyptian Mathematics you have to understand fractions but you know what those learned mathematicians never once attempted to explain to us WHY DID THE ANCIENT EGYPTIANS USE FRACTIONS ?. Seriously have you ever given it any thought ? I know I hadn't. Well I am going to explain it to you and once you see it you will marvel with me and wonder did Pythagoras ruin us or help us ? And speaking of Pythagoras let us go back to an earlier image where the significance may have been overlooked. Here is the image. Here is the image I would like us to examine again:

Think about this for just  minute. What we have done is taken "Pythagoras' theorem and changed it completely. No longer do you need angles or anything else. All you need is a straight line and a diagonal. Or in reality a "square". Allow me to demonstrate.

And surprisingly I learned something form this diagram. In a 1, 2 sq rt of 5 right angled triangle  (as featured above) d squared (which is b + a squared) subtract c squared or hypotenuse and we are left with b squared . Very neat and unusual. It is my contention that the ancient Egyptians were using this way before the time of The Greeks and to me shows me that there can be little doubt that Pythagoras got his ideas directly from the Ancient Egyptians.

But for heavens sake Don on with the measuring ! For those who know me they know that way, way back I spent 8 years as a surveyor first as a rodman and then as an instrument man and then as a Party Chief building an oil refinery.  And although I really never totally understood it all I did retain a few ideas that stuck with me. One of the things that never left me was the idea of "stadia"  Here is a definition of stadia:  
Here is the link Now to make it quick and simple the transit instrument that measures angles can also double as a level and when one looks through the scope one sees this:

The distance you are away from the rod is equal to the distance between the top and bottom cross hairs x 100. I was convinced that The Ancient Egyptians used some form of stadia and so for many years on and off when I was thinking of this topic I always thought this was the way I needed to go and where the solution lay but I was to be found not even close.  I was convinced that Khonsu played a key role but again I think I  was wrong. Here is the image that led me to believe that this might be where the solution lay as Khonsu sure looks like he was holding a rod.

Don you are starting to annoy even me :) Okay out with it. Okay the solution came to me in a flash of insight when I was looking at my earlier work and trying to figure out how I was going to measure the "a" and "b" side of the pyramid sides. I was thinking what could I use and then I thought well really the only instrument of measure that would have been available to me back in 2500 B.C was the cubit so it would have to be the tool I used. While I was sitting there figuring out if I would be able to calculate the ratios of the two pyramid sides in order to calculate the azimuth or approach angle to the pyramid form the cubit the tsunami hit the brick wall of ignorance and shattered it it into a million pieces. Now I have ridden tsunamis of knowledge and enlightenment before but this was to a bit different. It wasn't hurried. I had learned so much over the last 16 years, when I first received my enlightenment that I could enjoy this to the fullest and I has also learned to jot everything down for I had found out the hard way that sometimes things only come to you once. So as I was sitting there thinking about the cubit and of course the pyramids always enter the picture and I suddenly thought hey wait a minute maybe I can use the cubit in some way as a measuring rod. But how ? And then I had a break through in thinking that I am sure will change the course of Egyptology.  I thought hey wait a minute I can use the cubit as a rod and then use a form of stadia. However after the initial rush of excitement I realized that it would not work because to read the rod you would need a very powerful lens and although I had done research that did show the Ancient Egyptians did use and possess lenses. And then the tsunami broke through the last barrier of the darkness and I was bathed in the light of knowledge for I instantly saw the solution. Here is it.

If one holds a measuring device, in this case the cubit and holds it up in front of him, if he could some how figure out the angle between the top and bottom of the rod to the pyramid he could figure things out. Allow me to post and illustration of what I mean.

However how could we ever hope to figure out what the distance was from the 1 cubit mark to the end of the line and further how could this even help us figure out the distance and then the final mists of non understanding passed and I was sitting there with the solution. I had to figure a way of knowing what the distance was from the cubit rod to the end point and then I thought of the pyramid and the cubit and then realized that both had 28 units. The cubit had 28 digits and The Great Pyramid had  28, 10 cubit spacing. There had to be a logical connection and there was.  In a 45 degree angle the height is equal to the base. So in this diagram below we are showing a 45 degree angle with height and base of 280 cubits.

Now using my brain I finally figured out that if I held up a cubit rod at the right place I would simply have to line the top of the rod with the top of the pyramid and I should know how far way I was. But this would only work as below:

So how in the middle of the desert would I be able to do this. I immediately thought of my arm and when I measured, or actually got someone at work to measure from the tip of my fingers to my eyes I was very disappointed to see that it was 24 inches. I needed 20.62 inches and then my heart raced for I knew now what the solution was. I called the girl back and I said, while gripping my phone in my hand I said Belinda measure the distance now from the phone to my eyeglass and as she started to measure I said ...  IT IS 20.62 INCHES ISN'T IT !  Her face turned white and she yelled at me how the hell could you know that. You are really starting to freak me out Don. And so there you have part of it. The distance from the eye to the center of a clenching fist is none other than 20.62 inches... THE CUBIT !!!!!!!!! and I am sure a gift from the gods to allow us to figure all of this out with only using our body.  And so it came about that the ease of calculating distances followed. And here is how we now do it. In a 45 degree angle ( I am going to use 7 units for ease of clarity) when we stand at a spot that is 280 cubits from the Great Pyramid and hold the cubit rod out in front of us this is what you would see.  I am going to use the cubit rod found in The Louvre.

So just so you understand what we have discovered and what we are doing. If we hold a cubit rod out in front of us and the pyramid completely fills the 7 units then we are 280.0 cubits from the center of the pyramid. Now how neat is that. But I hear a question from the back of the room "what happens if it only fills 6 of the 7 units and that folks is where the miracle and genius of Egyptian Mathematics and what we have discovered come into effect. First allow me to post a picture of the pyramid only going to the sixth marking.

So now we are standing at a spot where holding the cubit out in from of us we see that the pyramid just covers the first six markings. The question would be how far away am I and the answer is the work of Grade 3 school work. We simply divide 280 by 6 to get 46 AND TWO THIRDS and then multiply by the 7 units we still have on the bottom. Correct answer equals 326 and TWO THIRDS !  

Let's try 5.5 our favorite from The Great Pyramid. Here is the image when The Great Pyramid fills up to the 5 1/2 marking. Here is that image.

By now everyone of you should be able to figure out how far away from the pyramid we are. We simply divide 280 by 5.5 and then multiply by 7 to get 356 AND 4 / 11THS (our way is 356.3636363636). And things to note and learn,. Every one of these results yields a fraction and so that is why The Ancient Egyptians were quite content to get about their business using just fractions for there base was not 10 or 5 or 2 no their base was what they have tried to tell us all along was that THEY USED BASE 7 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

You know I have spent almost all my life saying to myself and others, Keep searching for the truth and one day it just might find you" I think that day is now. I hope you realize what we have discovered here. It is an entirely new way to look at The Ancient Egyptians. Gone are the circles and the decimals and the other fringe ideas and in their palace we have a new reality ... or have we ?  Why base 7 ? And here is something to ponder ... rather than asking which came first the chicken or the egg let us ask ourselves which came first ... The Great Pyramid or the cubit. For in my research I have proved that the ancient measurements were a gift from The Creator, they mimic the proportions of our solar system almost exactly and now using "base 7" I am certain that the values I was getting 99.98 for will now be close to certainty.  For maybe the creator did not rest on the seventh day, maybe he used the 7th day and his base 7 to help mankind along ...

PS I almsot forgot. For those who may think this is all fanciful thinking I will point you to one single image which tells a story far greater than we could ever have imagined. Here is the image. Thoth the wisest of the wise. the giver of measures, doing ... well what does it appear to you he is doing ?
Sure looks like he is holding a cubit rod in his hand and is marking probably where the pyramid is so he can calculate the distnace.

Humbly Yours
Don Barone ... and I have to repeat here the wisest saying I think I have ever heard ... If I seem to see further than some it is simply because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.
Amen Emhotep

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